Fishing The edges - Reading the water Pt IV

When I guide with guests who wish to learn more about fly fishing or to sharpen their skills, I teach them two mantras: fish the edges & the foam is home. Finding fish is the most important part in fishing. However, you would be amazed at how many times I show up to a crowded beat on a river and see people ignoring the prime water, and instead, fishing water because they are observing an occasional fish feeding here and there. They are fishing with their eyes and not their river reading skills. Knowing how to find hidden fish in heavy water can yield big results.

FullSizeRender 4.jpg

Recently, I was on a popular beat of the Yampa River in downtown Steamboat Springs. I have a favorite spot that conceals a lot of very nice fish. My river log will tell you my success on the Yampa and much of it can be correlated to this particular spot among just a handful. The froggy pool above me had two anglers swinging patterns to no avail and the pool below me was occupied, as it usually is on a daily basis. Yet, right smack in the middle of the river lays my favorite spot hidden in plain sight.  I wade across to begin my approach while thinking to myself that surely, someone had to have pounded this spot and my efforts might be to no avail. I made my second cast and hooked and landed a nice 18" brown. I hooked and landed a few more fish and broke off a large gator rolling rainbow. I know that this spot does get fished as I have removed many flies that have broken off in the snouts of fish here. Perhaps these fish had been hooked elsewhere and sought refuge in this rarely fished spot?

What makes that particular spot on the Yampa and other similar spots unique is that it contains well defined edges and foam lines. An edge is where differing current speeds slip past each other and are often bordered on one or both sides by heavy water. Steelheading anglers know this as a current seam and that is where steelhead like to hold or travel along. Edges can also be defined by channel morphology such as gravel bars and drop offs or converging currents. In short, it gives fish structure both above and below the water surface.

Fish need three conditions for basic survival. Cover from above, a steady predictable food source drifting within close proximity and respite from the current. Edges usually provide all three of these conditions. If you find edges that contain a bubble line or a foam line you have found an ideal location to probe with a tactical nymph. Bubble lines are a clear indication of a current feature that funnels everything drifting downstream into a reliable path and if one is located near an edge you have eliminated a lot of guesswork. You can read about foam lines here.

The image below is perhaps one of the best examples of what a very "edgy & foamy" section of river can look like. On the left is a gravel bar forming an edge with a heavy section of current forming the other edge. A foam raft near the top provides cover for fish and the bubble lines gives us a clue that there is a food path for the fish. This pool also provides cover from above and bowling ball sized boulders on the bottom providing a buffer from the current. You can see the size of the boulders middle upper right. I watched two anglers fish this pool before I reached it and I managed to catch a few more fish out of it before calling it a day.

Gravel Bars


Green areas are the prime spots within the confines of this edges to pay special attention to. Don't forget to fish both sides of a heavy current edge and any pockets whereabouts additional fish might be found.


Hydraulic Edges


This pool is another example of an edge. Here, converging currents create a hydraulic edge thus defining a feeding lane and cover from above. Fish will hold very near the fast water slipping away to intercept anything edible that might be coming down the pipeline. There is a special spot near the top center of this riffle where the fish are protected on both sides from current cover allowing them to move either left or right in search of food. Can you find the sweet spot?


It's worth attempting to fish the near side of this current edge however, heavy angling pressure will likely cause the fish to concentrate in the water seeing less pressure. I landed a 21" rainbow and 18" brown rainbow out of the green section of this beat.

This beautiful bow was pulled from the sweet spot within a hydraulic edge.

This beautiful bow was pulled from the sweet spot within a hydraulic edge.

Have fun out there looking for those edges both obvious and more subtle.

I describe my favorite French leader set up for long range nymphing large rivers.

I am often asked to demonstrate my favorite french leader set up for fishing the larger western rivers. Since I started using the Czech nymph method in 2001, I have experimented with a lot of leaders and how to build the ideal leader for the type of nymph fishing that I do. Many years of evolution and research has landed me on the french leader system described in Jonathon White's book, Nymphing The New Way.

 In this video I talk about how I rig up my tactical leader rig with 3 flies.

Lead Free Angling - Fishing with a conscience

We are faced with many social and environmental choices in our day to day lives. Do we throw that scrap of rubbish in the garbage bin only to be hauled off to the landfill, or do we place it into a recycling bin to be used again? Should we use chemical or organic fertilizers on our lawn, or should we even have a lawn in the first place? Do we avoid using red dye in our hummingbird feeders? Should we worry about lead in our fishing gear? After-all, I’m just one guy occasionally losing a handful of split shot to the rocks. What’s the harm in that?

So many of our actions may seem benign at first, but when you add up our small actions and then multiply them by the global population, our actions become amplified. If we consider the number of anglers fishing a popular destination river such as the Madison, Yellowstone or even the Roaring Fork Rivers, we might start to see our individual choices have a larger impact on the ecosystem as a whole, when we add everything up.

On a midsummer day in July, I counted 35 drift boats cruise by me on a stretch of the Madison River in an 8- hour period of time. In each boat, there were at least two anglers. Hypothetically, let's suppose each boat was fishing the traditional western nymph and bobber technique popular with rowing guides. I cannot ascertain with what technique they were fishing, but suppose for the sake of this argument that all of the anglers were fishing with split shot attached to their leaders. It is not uncommon for anglers to lose a lot of gear, especially new anglers.

Let’s assume that each boat that drifted by was using nymphs that day and that each angler in each boat all had lost 6 split shot each. A single BB sized split shot weights .02oz. There were 35 boats x .24oz lost in each boat = 8.4oz.

That is over half of a pound of lead in one day alone!

If there are 100 guide days per season and 35 guided trips per day, on average, that equals 840 ounces of lead, or 52.5lbs, in one single river in one single year. FIFTY-TWO POUNDS OF LEAD.

It is highly unlikely that 52lbs of lead was actually lost to the river bottom that year, however, because not every boat was fishing with lead attached to the split shot or lead based weighted fly patterns. Even if only 20% of the anglers used and had lost lead rigs, it's still a lot of weight donated to the benthic zone in that year alone - possibly ten and a half pounds of lead.

I have not even mentioned the use of lead anchors. I watched one so-called "guide" (the same "guide" I mention in the caddis are coming post) lose 2 anchors in one day on the Yakima River many years ago. Heck! That’s probably 20lbs of plumbum on the bottom.

As we have seen in our natural world, lead lasts a long time in the environment and can possibly migrate throughout an ecosystem. A case in point might be the California Condors, who have been suffering lead poisoning near the Grand Canyon due to lead shot used in hunting.

According to the Arizona Game and Fish Department[1]:

Lead toxicity has been identified as the leading cause of death in condors in Arizona’s California condor reintroduction program, and high mortality rates are the primary obstacle to recovery of this species. Multiple condors have died of lead poisoning since 2000. Condors are trapped annually to have their blood tested for lead. Biologists began testing for lead exposure in 1999. Each year, 45 to 95 percent of the condor population tests positive for lead exposure. Chelation treatment is often required to reverse dangerously high blood lead levels.  Surgery has also been necessary in the worst cases. Without these treatments, more condors likely would have died.

A number of scientific studies collectively provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis that spent lead ammunition is the primary source of lead exposure in condors. The information gained from these studies can be collectively presented as a set of scientific findings or observations, linked together to create a logic chain. Individually, each link in the following logic chain has been demonstrated by a scientific study, and collectively the links form a logic chain that provides strong evidence that lead ammunition is the most likely source of elevated blood lead levels in free-ranging condors.


I am not entirely certain if, or how, lead migrates through the food web of trout streams. A possible hypothesis can be made concerning lead in our aquatic ecosystems by reviewing some scientific literature by Dr A Cristini [2].

More complex aquatic plants, such as the submerged aquatic vegetation that have roots and a multi-celled structure, appear to take up more lead than plants without roots; this may be related to their absorption of lead from sediments. Uptake of lead in aquatic systems varies with many different factors including the pH of the water, the presence of other minerals in the water, and the availability of organic compounds or other chemicals that may bind up the lead, making it less available for uptake on the one hand, or on the other, actually facilitating its uptake by the organism. In some aquatic plants, rooted in sediments, lead taken up by the roots can be translocated or moved to the shoot, although lead can also be directly absorbed from the water especially if the lead concentration is high there. Lead measured in aquatic plants may also include that adsorbed at the surface or taken up by bacteria that reside on the surface of the plant. In one study, 46% of the lead measured from the plants was actually in the epiphytic (surface-resident) bacteria. Certain bacteria can increase the toxicity of lead to aquatic plants by synthesizing methyl- or other alkyl-lead compounds. These are organic compounds consisting of one or more carbon atoms and associated hydrogen atoms; the organic compounds are more soluble in the fatty membranes of plant and animal cells and more readily taken up. Although these methyl-lead complexes are not nearly as important in food chain contamination as comparable organic mercury compounds, they can be as much as twenty times more toxic than an equivalent weight of inorganic lead.


It has been observed that some forms of lead do not migrate up the aquatic food chain, however one can make a simple observation that lead in plant leaves will get eaten by bacteria that then get eaten by benthic macro invertebrates which belong to the shredder/scraper functional feeding group. Fish will then consume the macro-invertebrates and consume quantities of lead.

Dr. Cristini continues:

Even at lead concentrations at or below the 50 parts per billion previously considered safe in drinking water for human consumption, chronic lead exposure to fish may bring about increased mortality rates, reduced hatching success and indications of neurotoxicity as indicated by higher incidences of black tails (darkening of the caudal area) and spinal curvatures. In a Colorado stream that received contaminants after a dam holding back tailings from a mining site broke, rainbow trout exhibited neurological damage, including spinal curvatures and blackening of the tail. The stream contained up to 50 ppb of lead per liter of water. Because of the sensitivity of these fish, a Maximum Acceptable Toxicant Concentration (MACT) of 7.2 mg/l (ppb) has been suggested for rainbow trout. Brook trout also showed scoliosis (bilateral spinal curvatures), an abnormality of the spine, and reduced growth after long term exposure to lead. These effects lasted over several generations.


Dr. Cristini's paper continues to discuss the effects on waterfowl, humans, amphibians and crustaceans. As sportsmen and women, we may not even consider other impacts we are having which include the impacts on birds, waterfowl and amphibians.

More and more, we are learning that we are having a greater impact on our natural world. Alone, each individual may not pose a substantial risk but en masse, we pose far greater risks to our environment than we realize. Perhaps we start to look for alternatives to using lead in our fishing gear. Fly companies are starting to sell lead free flies, or even better, tungsten beaded flies, which sink fast. There are tungsten weights and sinkers and tungsten putty that can be used as well as tin split shot offering a viable alternative to lead.




Photography Tips

I get a lot of emails requesting that I put up videos on how I photograph my fly's. I am always in a quandary about this because it really is beyond the scope of anything that I have ever done yet. you see, I have been perfecting my art since 1986 when I started photography. I have since spent several thousands of hours and tens of thousands of dollars on pursuing a fine art degree, honing the skills required to produce the images by applying optics and color science.

Professional photographers, including myself, wish that people could understand that photography is not just a matter of taking a picture and having it come out of the camera ready for publication. There is a great deal of digital darkroom involved to sharpen images and correct contrast not to mention composition and lighting. 

As a professional photographer who's life work hangs in galleries, I just simply ask that people respect the labor and toil involved in creating these works of art. As a professional artist, my specific "how to" get images to look the way I do is not something that I am willing to give away for free. Not at least until I have recouped my investment in learning this craft. Most professional photographers cringe everytime someone asks them to give away thier work. Would you  spend your life learning how build a house, labor in its construction for 30 years and then just give it away for free to a complete stranger? 

To be fair and get you going in the right direction, I will say that you should perfect your in camera (DSLR) white balance, use good studio lighting such as soft boxes and quality optics including macro lenses. Learn your lenses optimal aperture for the sharpest image. You should also go to for tutorials on color correction, selective sharpening and other photoshop image editing procedures. The web also has tons of macro photography videos. I still go to YouTube and watch tutorials on a regular basis. After 30 some years, I am still learning something new every time I seek it.

Cutomer pix

It is always nice to see the fish that customers who have bought my flies have caught while using them. 

Kyle Lusk shows off an amazing specimen of Oncorhynchus mykiss. Give him a follow over on Instagram

Don't Get Punched in the Eye

As with all functioning society, a set of moral rules and conduct is in place to maintain common civility. Fly Fishing is no exception to the imposition of a moral code governing its rules and ethics. Various flavors of this code book have been authored from time to time leaving many confused as to the rights and wrongs of the sport. 

I would like to include a long forgotten but most important commandment: Never fish too close or violate the right of way of another fisherman. It is always first come first serve out there. To maintain civility between us all, you should always ask permission before entering another anglers beat, typically delineated by obvious structural changes in the water between riffles and pools. Otherwise you will probably get punched you in the eye or verbally humiliated in front of your wife and kids.

Read about the "Seven Deadly Sins of Fly Fishing" here.

Reading The Water Pt 3. Deciphering Laminar Flows

Not every river you fish will feature endless arrays of perfect pockets, pools, seams and structure in which to easily locate fish. Sometimes, we have to find fish in water that has less distinct characteristics. Rather than waste time blindly casting to empty water, possibly putting down fish with our efforts, stop and take time to observe the surface characteristics of the flow.

Laminar flow can be the most enigmatic water to decipher. It is water that flows at an even speed from top to bottom bank to bank. I normally walk by water that exhibits no obvious structure in which to target my effort. Smooth even currents from bank to bank merely bumping over the rubble is akin to fishing on the moon. I know fish are present, often seeing rises out in the nondescript waterscape, but fishing this water requires more time and effort than casting to fish around obvious structure. 

If you do chance upon a feeding fish in a section of river that is laminar in structure, spend some time observing where that fish is located. Even without the telltale signs of current seams, the location of drifting insects and fish are not left to chance. There is a structure at work that the fish use to thier advantage.

Fish will use whatever structure is available to them within the limited confines of a river. Sometimes we must look at less than obvious structures in the laminar sections of water. When looking at laminar flow, observe the structure of the river bottom and speed of the current. If the substrate consists of only sand, silt or very small cobble, with a flow that is walking speed or faster, you are better served moving along in search of something else. However, if you find laminar walking speed flow with a substrate that consists of bowling ball sized cobble you are in luck. You have found water that may contain fish. Small boulders create micro vortices that can hold a fish in the current, so the fish spends very little effort in maintaining its position. Deschutes River steelheaders know this when they fish those classic named mile long runs.

Figure 1. Laminar Flow

Figure 1. Laminar Flow

Before you wade into the river and start casting with the usual routine of starting in close working your way out in a clockwork shotgun fashion, take time to look at the surface of the water and try and find the “lanes” that do exist. Lanes are the micro seams that slip past each other funneling everything that drifts downstream into narrow bands. The best way to find the lanes is to find the bubbles. Are the bubbles accumulating in a concentrated area? If so you have found your lane. It may take some time to train your eye to look for a higher concentration of bubbles gathering in an inch wide seam amidst an even dispersion of bubbles, but when you do, you have found your area of concentrated effort. Fish will be located within close proximity of these micro seams in order to easily slip away from thier vortex and inspect a likely morsel. 

Figure 2. Lanes are revealed as white lines caused by the accumulation of bubbles in concentrated micro seams.

Figure 2. Lanes are revealed as white lines caused by the accumulation of bubbles in concentrated micro seams.

Figure 3. Orange lines indicate the location of the lanes within a Laminar flow profile.

Figure 3. Orange lines indicate the location of the lanes within a Laminar flow profile.

In the images above, I have used the tools of photography to illustrate where micro seams actually occur. In figure 1, we see a general random dispersion of bubbles on the surface in a section of laminar flow over bowling ball sized substrate. In figure 2, I exposed the image longer to blur the lines and now you can see the micro lanes as faint white stripes, so that you will know better where to concentrate your efforts.

Figure 4. Can you see it now?

Figure 4. Can you see it now?

The EPT Factor


Beneath the rippled current of a trout stream, a complex food web plays out far greater than many anglers realize. The basic biology of a trout stream is often hidden well out of our view unless we are willing to explore the depths, which often requires getting wet and cold. At the very bottom of a fluvial food chain is a bio-film - powered by sunlight and dissolved nutrients - that covers the rocks, plants and woody debris upon which benthic macro invertebrates feed. Slightly higher up the taxonomic ladder are the benthic macro invertebrates, underwater organisms which lack backbones. Macro invertebrates such as insects, worms, crustaceans and isopods feed on the bio-film, then become food for other insects, birds, small fish, and ultimately, the trout we love to pursue as a favorite game fish.

The Gold Ribbed Hares Ear meets a Kaufmann's Stone.

The Gold Ribbed Hares Ear meets a Kaufmann's Stone.

Taxonomists have divided the entire known biological world into eight categories from domain, kingdom, all the way down to genus and species. For a fly angler wanting to choose the right fly, it is important to know at least the family orders of the three primary aquatic insects. A familiarity with the three dominant taxonomic families is a must when choosing the right fly, as each family has its own distinct shape and life cycle.

The three families of aquatic insect that we must pay close attention to are: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, otherwise known as the Mayflies, Caddisflies and Stoneflies (EPT). Each of these families of insect has its own unique life history and key role within an aquatic food system. Each EPT family category is not hard to recognize throughout the individual life stage. Mayfly adults have a distinct pair of upright wings with a variety of three tailed larva known as nymphs. Caddis adults have tent shaped wings, with the larva stage having tubular, worm shaped bodies, and often, external shelters they build and carry around with them. Stonefly adults have two pair of wings that fold flat over the back, and the larval form are often large and robust crawling about the rocks.

Keeping a simple collection of fly patterns to imitate these three categories is the very foundation of a quality working fly box. It is easy to get drawn into an endless array of fly patterns filling the bins of a well stocked fly shop, each fly pattern calling out its own special fish-catching allure. However, expert fly anglers know that simply a small collection of fly patterns always gets the job done. The reason only a few patterns are all that is really needed is that they imitate the three families of aquatic insects very well. 

Free living Caddis Larva

Free living Caddis Larva

I have selected a small handful of fly patterns that serve as a foundation to imitate the EPT families. The fly patterns are based on a general size and shape of each family with enough impressionistic qualities to possibly imitate more than one family by altering its size and color. Each season, I narrow down my collection of patterns based on general effectiveness. New patterns emerge from the vice that simply outperform old patterns from previous seasons. I noticed that if I focus more on impressionistic imitations with a focus on the EPT factor, the better my angling day.

Stonefly Nymph

Stonefly Nymph

Good science has no need to reinvent the wheel. The wheel is already perfect in its intended purpose: to roll. The same holds true for many fly patterns invented long ago. There is no need to reinvent something that is already perfect for its intended purpose. However, like the wheel, we can alter it to suit our intended use without altering its core functionality. When choosing a small collection of fly patterns that function to imitate the EPT group, I look at the so-called "wheels" of fly design to select the tried and true patterns to serve as the foundation of a fly box. Having selected a core group of fly patterns I can then alter their size and color to imitate even more possibilities. In most cases I have stripped the original fly down to its most common element, to impressionistically imitate the basic shape, size and color.

Common Mayfly Nymph

Common Mayfly Nymph

The following are my favorite patterns for each family, with a focus on patterns that can fall within multiple families. If a fly pattern can fall within multiple categories, it earns top spots in this collection. I am focusing on nymphs alone because the imitation of adults typically requires more exacting imitations rather than impressionistic fly patterns. I also spend 99% of my time searching the water with nymph patterns.




Simplified Pheasant Tail Nymphs mimic mayfly nymphs very well and may even be taken for other food items.

Simplified Pheasant Tail Nymphs mimic mayfly nymphs very well and may even be taken for other food items.

If we break down the shape of each of the EPT group, the single common denominator for all of them is a round, tubular shaped abdomen usually tapered at one end. In fact, beyond the EPT group, other families also have the same simple tubular shape. While many mayflies have different shaped abdomens, differing from torpedo to suction cup discs, if we blur our eyes for a second like artists do while painting, we would lose detail and a general shape of form emerges. In most cases, a simple tapered tube shape is the dominant form most frequently observed in benthic macro invertebrates.

I have snorkeled many salmonid streams performing fish counts and identifications including benthic macro invertebrate sampling. I frequently see a behavioral pattern with fish holding in feeding positions within the stream channel. Fish will move from side to side and slightly upwards a few inches to take in any small object that has a cylindrical shape. Many times that object is just a broken twig or leaf stem that is then quickly ejected as a non edible object. The importance of this observation tells me that fish are prone to sampling anything that has a common cylindrical or torpedo shape common to most aquatic macro invertebrates.

Most of my angling time is spent fishing in a general searching pattern, probing likely fish-holding locations with these attractor style nymph patterns. This is the time I use any of the general attractors that I have mentioned, patterns that have the general size and color of many of the insects commonly found in my river. It is only when fish key in on a specific insect at a specific moment in that insect's life cycle that I will then fish patterns designed to specifically imitate that instance.


Reading The Water Pt 2. Seams and Bubble lines

There are a few basic visual clues one can learn to observe about streams in order to narrow the window of where fish are likely holding, especially on big rivers where fish could be anywhere; especially if you don't know how to dissect large parcels of water into smaller subsections. One of the most obvious and often overlooked indicators of likely fish locations are the bubble lines or bubble zones. Bubble lines occur where the current gathers together usually as a result of some instream structure funneling the surface bubbles into predictable locations which also funnels food into a small area making feeding easier for fish, thus expending fewer calories in an effort to feed. Instead of having to swim all over the place looking for food, a fish can hold in a preferred spot where the food is funneled directly to them. Current seams can also define the location of a bubble line or at least prove a location that can also funnel food into a narrow band. Though typically a bubble line is caused by underwater structure. Structure that gives fish a safe location in which to hold and feed. Usually, you will find current seams and bubble lines very near each other, 

In the images below, I illustrate some of the most obvious instances of water that contains bubble lines, current seams and structure. If you stumble upon a small section of water that contains all three, take a moment to analyze what you are looking at. Chances are there may be a feeding fish.

In figure 1. You can see several prime structures you should look for when searching streams for likely trout holding water. There is an obvious current seam defining the slow and fast water, obvious underwater structure fish can use to hide near and a bubble line funneling food into the best possible holding spot. Can you identify where the fish should be in this picture?

Figure 1. Typical Grade A trout structure. It has cover from above, A strong bubble line funneling food near structure with a quick escape route next heavy fast current.

Figure 1. Typical Grade A trout structure. It has cover from above, A strong bubble line funneling food near structure with a quick escape route next heavy fast current.

Figure 2. Current structure defined between current seams and foam lines or bubble zone.

Figure 2. Current structure defined between current seams and foam lines or bubble zone.

Figure 3. A trout revealing its exact location

Figure 3. A trout revealing its exact location

Reading the Water, Part One, Introduction.

No, this blog post is not about a magical river flowing from the headwaters of the Unicorn Mountains, and if you learn it’s secret language, you could read a story about a magical voyage long ago; rather, it is about knowing where fish can be located within a stream based on observable hydrological and structural characteristics.

As a child learning to fly fish, I was always told that being able to “read the water” is an essential skill for an angler's success. At the very least, understanding the fluid dynamics and structural characteristics of a stream can lend the angler the ability to find fish within a given location. 

From the age of ten onward, I dedicated myself to learning about where fish like to dwell within the dynamic world of moving water. I recall sitting in the passenger seat on long drives into the mountains looking at the streams along the road. “Look at that spot; that ought to be a good spot to fish,” I would say, when I identified what looked like a fishy looking fluvial characteristic. Sometimes, I would beg my parents to stop and let me out so that I could at least make a couple of casts in another fishy looking spot just to see what would happen. I always brought my fly rod with me on family road trips into the mountains with an optimistic hope that a lunch spot would afford me at least a few minutes to practice my fly fishing skills.

When I was 42, I left my previous two careers in favor of pursuing my fisheries biology degree. I spent a summer working as a stream surveyor for the United States Forest Service. Because I had so much previous experience being able to locate fish in a stream environment, I was tasked with conducting stream snorkeling surveys, looking for coho and bull trout. I later learned more scientific terms for defining different stream classifications and hydrological features both in school and on the job. I now have a language I can speak for describing fluvial fish habitat.

I was scouting new water today while taking a bank side stroll with my wife. As we walked along I mapped out this rather featureless beat I might add to my guiding options. We pressed on hoping to find some water with more definition that would appeal to my fish finding senses. I saw an angler working some completely nondescript water, water that I wouldn’t even string up a rod to fish (see my post about laminar flows). To me, it would be like fishing on the moon. There would likely be fish present in that location, but there is nothing unique about the structure to give one a visual clue as to fish location. I then realized that the angler I observed might not be skilled at reading the water, or his skill set may not be strong enough to confidently fish the water with more defined structure and dynamic currents, like those located just upstream from him.

I often see anglers fishing in water I rarely stop to explore. I used to wonder if these people knew something that I didn't, or if they just were not educated enough about reading the water? I know, after having snorkeled in plenty of water like the nondescript boulder flats I see anglers frequently fishing, that the fish are few and far between in those locations. Perhaps they are happy with the occasional fish that they work so very hard to catch?

It would take me a hundred pages to describe the preferred trout habitat and the techniques to fish each and every one of them. To ease your pain, I will parse this information for you into smaller chunks you can read in small doses. Over the course of the summer we will define specific hydrological features and how fish utilize them. I will try to include as many videos and illustrations as possible, so that I can steer you out of the barren cobble flats with laminar flow into more exciting water full of fish.

I will use a specific language to describe rivers and streams, not only when I am describing fluvial characteristics but also when I discuss benthic macroinvertebrate distributions within a watershed (yawn). Yes, that will be another day.

  • Fluvial: Fluvial is a term used in geography and geology to refer to the processes associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and land forms created by them.
  • Benthic: The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
  • Thalweg: is a line drawn to join the lowest points along the entire length of a stream bed or valley in its downward slope, defining its deepest channel -- often having the deepest, heaviest current.
  • Laminar Flow: In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers. Observed as smooth even current from bank to bank.
  • Substrate: The composition of the bottom of the stream from sand, silt, clay to stones, cobble and boulders.
  • Embeddedness: The degree to which fine sediments surround coarse substrates on the surface of a stream bed is referred to as embeddedness.
  • Riffle: A riffle is a shallow section of a stream or river with rapid current and a surface broken by gravel, rubble or boulders. Riffles are instrumental in the formation of meanders, with deeper pools forming alternately.
  • Pool: in hydrology, is a stretch of a river or stream in which the water depth is above average and the water velocity is quite below average. A pool must extend from bank to bank. A side pool does not extend from bank to bank but to the side with faster water defining one side if the pool. A side pool will generally have a current seam and back eddy characteristics. 
  • Current Seam: the parallel junction between two distinct current speeds as they slip past each other.
  • Foam Line: Where bubbles gather in specific patterns along the length of current as defined by that current.
  •  Pocket Water or Pocket Pools: Small bank side pools outside of the Thalweg that are defined by and protected by boulders that cannot be technically defined as a pool.
  •  Wetted Width: the width of a body of water as described by the current water level.

Up Next: Current seams and bubble lines. What do they mean?